The innate immune system has two primary functions, one of which is to fight infection. This type of defense is triggered by an infectious agent, and is inherited from parents. It is a stable, rapid response that has been around for 1.5 billion years. While it lacks immunological memory, innate immune cells recognize the common structure and images of microbial pathogens. In addition, innate immunity cells can respond to the presence of a certain antigen.
Innate immunity is the first line of defense. It is nonspecific and exists before microbes even enter the body. It recognizes these microbes generically and recycles immune cells to the site of infection. Non-specific immune cells are activated by special chemical mediators called cytokines, which trigger a complementary cascade to attack the infection. Both types of innate immunity work together to protect the body from infections and disease.
Innate immunity can be used to prevent disease by triggering the body to remember pathogens and recognize them. Vaccines are one form of innate immunity that is effective in this manner. They allow the body to remember the pathogens it has previously encountered. In addition to prevention, many diseases involve suppression of the immune system and autoimmune diseases, in which the immune system attacks the body itself. And finally, chronic inflammation is associated with many health issues, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases.
Adaptive immunity, on the other hand, was first developed 500 million years ago during the Cambrian explosion. Though present in less than 1% of animals, it is still present in jawed fish. The first forms of adaptive immunity include lymphocytes and T-cells. During the evolution of humans, these immune cells were thought to have emerged from a retroviral infection. These cells were subsequently reorganized to become T and B-cells.
Innate immunity also involves the production of cytokines and antibodies. These cells respond to inflammation and infection by mobilizing immune cells to the site of the infection. They also activate the complement system, which aids in identifying and coating foreign antigens. It also promotes the clearance of cell debris and dead cells. Lastly, innate immunity can activate the adaptive immune response through antigen presentation. They contribute to our overall health.
Innate immunity is our body’s first line of defense against foreign substances. Antigens are proteins found on cells, fungi, bacteria, and viruses. The immune system uses these antigens to destroy the foreign material. The immune system has a few different types of innate immunity, including genetic immunity, adaptive immunity, and individual immunity. These types of immune defenses are the most important types of protection our bodies have.
NK cells are large granular lymphocytes. They play a critical role in the rejection of tumours. They recognize and destroy infected cells by releasing granzymes and perforins from their granules. These cells are then recruited by the adaptive immune system to fight the infection. These cells are also responsible for preventing the spread of infection. And, unlike the adaptive immune system, NK cells are non-self.